Saturday, September 3, 2011

A Brief Introduction to Ahle-Sunna Sect


A serious perusal of the booklet titled ‘Ta’aruf-e-Ahle Sunnat’ compiled by Janab Yaseen Akhtar Misbahi convinced me that an English version of it will help the believers to analyse and visualize the truthfulness of their Sunni beliefs as against the evils of misleading preaching of the other factions.
So I thought it befitting to translate it into English for the benefit of readership through length and breadth of the country and outside it. The result of my effoert is in the form of ‘AN INTRODUCTION TO AHLE-SUNNA’ which is in your hands.
Apart from my own intentions Maulana Syed Anwer Mian Chishti Misbahi while visiting my residence asked me to translate it for the good of our brothers. This worked as catalyst and I prepared myself to do the job inspite of my drawbacks which I was aware of. I hope it will interest you too.
I am obliged indeed to Dr. Syed Mohammad Amin, Reader in Dept. of Urdu AMU Aligarh, who is also the Sajjada-Nasheen of the Qadri-Barkati Sufi order at Khanqah of Marehra(Etah) and Maulana Syed Mohammad Anwer Mian Chishti Misbahi of Phaphund Khanqah for their blessings and encouragement.
Whenever I found myself wanting in one way or the other Maulana Kamaluddin Sahib Ashrafi of Jaswant Nagar, Etawah came to my rescue every time and not only encouraged me but also gave full moral support and also rendered precious advice. I am really thankful to him without whose help and valuable advice this work would not have been possible. I am also grateful to my friend Professor Mohammad Ameer who spared his time whenever I required to help me in my translation work.
While concluding I must confess that it is my father’s effort that I have such a bent of mind and his blessings always came to my rescue. I am thankful to everyone who has helped me from time to time to complete this Project.
Let us pray to Almighty Allah for bestowing healthy vision to the ailing eyes of our beloved writer Maulana Yaseen Akhtar Misbahi. Ameen.
20th August, 2000 Dr.Mohammad Afzal Barkati
19th Jumadal Uoola 1421 A.H. 20, ArvindPul, RailwayRoad,Etawah


I was orally as well as in writing, invited to pen an introductory article regarding the school-of-thought of Ahle-sunna which is popularly known as Hanfi Bareilvi, and also about the thoughts and views of its distinguished scholars and erudite persons and important Institutions with the aim to publish it in special number of Jama’at-e-Islami’s organ ‘Dawat, Delhi’ (Oct 1999) on Indian Muslims, so as to introduce it in a positive manner to the Muslims. Accepting this invitation the understudy article is being presented. Although this subject demands a complete book and it it is very much possible that this article may become the preface of a complete book. At present evading details, I am presenting synoptical notes which I am sure, will add to the knowledge of the reader and will infuse interest in further study and research.
The Indian Muslims, from the beginning have been adhered to Sunni-Hanfi School of thought. There is a small population of Sunni-Shafei Muslims in the region of Konkan and Malabar, Shia Muslims are also found, spread in small number. Sectarianism and factionism started rearing its head amongst Muslims, in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. In this hot period of differences and disputes, the Chief aim was targeted towards the very act of conformation of four Imams of Islamic Jurisprudence, and in general, ‘Ta’sav’uf’ and ‘Ta’reeqat’ were aimed to be called as sinful acts and were severely criticized. Therefore, Islamic Jurisprudence, Ta’sav’uf and Ta’reeqat received severe and adverse criticism and were named as innovation (Bid’at) in religion. On these basis many new Schools-of-thoughts came into being, deviating from Ahle-Sunna path. To know this fact with historical continuity, I shall refer to the writings of Hakeem Abdul Hai, father of Maulana Abul Hasan Ali Nadvi and of Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, the disciple of Maulana Shibli Nomani.
  1. To some people in the issue of Islamic Jurisprudence (Fiqah) the act of conformation of the Imam is unlawful and ‘Hara’m’ (forbidden). In their opinion one should follow the rules clearly described in Quran and Hadith and that in the cases of the Jurisprudence, presumption (Qias) and consensus (Ijma) are not excuses in Islamic Divine Law (Shariat). This new School-of-thought was laid by Maulana Fakhir Bin-Yahya of Allahabad, Sheikh Nazeer Husain Husaini Bin Jawwad Ali of Delhi, Nawab Syed Siddiq Hasan of Bhopal and their followers.
The other sect has an extreme opinion with regard to the act of conformation of an Imam. They are insistent on opposing the dignity of this act. They believe the conformists as being innovators and selfish. They have gone ahead away in their view to an extent that they insult the Imams especially Imam Abu Hanifa. This School-of-thought comprises of Sheikh Abdul Haque Benarsi Bin Fazalullah and Sheikh Abdullah Siddiqui Allahabadi etc.
They have authored books as well according to their views and School-of-thought for example ‘Dara satellabib’ of Sheikh Moenuddin Sindhi Bin Ameen, ‘Qur’rat-ul-Ain’ain’ of Sheikh Fakhir Allahabadi, ‘Tan’veer-ul-Ain’ain’ of Shah Ismail Dehalvi, ‘Mei’yar-ul-Haque’ of Mian Syed Nazeer Husain, ‘Ei’tisam-us-sunna’ of Sheikh Abdullah Allahabadi and ‘Al’jannat’o Fil-us’wat-el-Ha’sanate Bis’ sunnah’ of Nawab Siddiqui Hasan Bhopali. There are two groups amongst scholars belonging to Hanfi School-of-thought. One of which is following the path of research and justice, which includes Mullah Behrul-Uloom Abdul Ali Bin Mullah Nizamuddin, who has written ‘Ar’kane-Arbaa’ and Maulana Abdul Hai Firangi Mehali Bin Abdul Haleem is a writer of ‘At’taliq’ul-Mumajjad’.
The other faction comprises of those scholars who are strict followers of conformation and can compromise for nothing against their Imams. For example- Maulana Sheikh Fazal-e-Rasool Amvi Badayuni and his followers (Reference: Islami Uloom-o-Funoon Hindustan Mein by Hakeem Abdul Hai Rai Bareilvi; page 154; Publisher: Darul Musannifeen Azamgarh).
  1. Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi and Maulana Qasim Nanotvi, the founder of Darul uloom Deoband are the distinguished pupils of Shah Abdul Ghani Mujaddidi and Maulana Sakhawat Ali Jaunpuri etc. are the pupils of Maulana Shah Ismail in the east. This category of scholars contained the colour of their conformation high, besides upholding their anti-innovation and pure-monotheism campaign.
Maulana Syed Nazeer Husain Bihari Dehalvi is another pupil of Maulana Shah Ishaque. This second category resorted to the direct references from the books of Hadith in order to gain understanding of the text to follow them, instead of conforming the Hanfi Islamic Jurisprudence, besides upholding their anti-innovation and pure-monotheism campaign and this very sect became popular as Ahl-e-Hadith.
The third sect was that which strictly remained undeviated from its old path and kept on proclaiming themselves calling Ahle-Sunna. The leading scholars of this were mostly from Bareilly and Badayun( Ref: Hayate Shibli by Syed Sulaiman Nadvi; page 46; Publisher: Darul Musannifeen Azamgarh).
According to Hakeem Abdul Hai Rai Bareilvi and Syed Sulaiman Nadvi, those who are strict conformist and strongly clinged to the old path calling themselves Ahle-Sunna are scholars of Badayun and Bareilly and their followers who are still not prepared to deviate from the old path.
Abdul Rahman Parwez Islahi and Professor Mohammad Ayyub Quadri of Karachi have elaborated this division of schools further in their own ways:
  1. Of the pupils and followers of Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddis Dehalvi, one group retained the preservance of Shah Abdul Azeez School-of-thought and did not like even the minor change in the rules of the Divine Law of Islam; but the other group enjoyed the act of non-conformation and exercised the interpretation of Islamic laws. So, gradually both factions started showing differences in various issues (Ref: Mufti Sardar Uddin Azurda by Abdul Rahman Parwez Islahi, Maktaba Jamia Ltd. New Delhi; Page 138).
  2. Many great philosophers and logicians were born in Oudh and Maulana Fazal-e-Haque Khairabadi was like their Commander-in-Chief in the last period. He had the privilege of getting education from the family of scholars of Shah Waliullah besides being taught by his father Maulana Fazal-e-Imam himself. But he had serious differences with some thoughts and views of Shah Ismail and Shah Ishaque Dehalvi, and was firmly set on the old path. Maulana Mehboob Ali Dehalvi (pupil pf Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddis Dehalvi) also shared with his views. Both of them strongly denounced the thoughts and views of Shah Ismail. In this connection, scholars of Badayun and Bareilly also helped them. (Ref: Urdu Mein Maz’habi A’dab. Page 55, Urdu Nama Karachi, December 1975).
It is necessary to go through the statements and observations of Mohammad Jafer Thenesri and Maulana Sanaullah if real results are to be achieved in understandable verbatim while keeping proximity with the truth:
  1. During my presence in India (1864 AD/1280 AH) perhaps there were not even ten Muslims of Wahabi School-of-thought in the whole of Punjab. And now (1884 Ad/1302 AH) I see that Wahabi followers of Mohammad Ismail comprises at least one fourth of Muslim population in each village and town (Ref: Ta’waree’kh-e-Ajeeba by Mohammad Jafer Thenesri, page 81, Sang-e-Meil Publication Lahore).
  2. In Amritsar both Muslims and Non-Muslims are equal in number. Eighty years ago, almost all Muslims had the same belief which is being observed by Hanfi Bareilvi Muslims now. (Ref: Shamm-a-Taheed by Sanaullah Amritsari, page 4, Publishers: Maktaba Sanaeya, Sargodha Punjab Pak).
Maulana Sanaullah Amritsari, the editor of periodical Ahl-e-Hadith has presented the above mentioned analysis in 1937. According to which, about hundred and sixty years back, the Muslims in Amritsar had the same belief which is pronounced currently as Hanfi Bareilvi thoughts. And according to Mohammad Jafer Thenesri’s observation and research, two hundred years ago there was no existence of any Wahabi follower of Shah Ismail Dehalvi in Punjab.
The Muslim Congregation was shattered due to non-conformation and deviation of some of the believers of Sunni Hanfi sect, after Siraj ul Hind Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddis Dehalvi.
The book ‘Taq’viyat-ul-Iman’ of Shah Ismail dehalvi, written in the name of protection to pure monotheism, came forward as an asylum to such persons, about which, according to Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Shah Ismail Dehalvi himself had this opinion:
“I have written this book and I know that some harsh words have crept in at some places and there has become some severity too at times. For example, those affairs existed as Minor Shirk (non-perfect believing) have been written as Major Shirk (idolatry). I surely anticipate agitation from this publication. If I had stayed here, I would have brought out the text gradually in eight or ten years, but at present I intend to proceed on Haj pilgrimage and after my return, I have a firm intention to participate in Jehad. Therefore I find myself unable to fulfill this work. I see that no other person will shoulder this burden. Therefore, I have penned this book. Though there would be turbulence, but I am sure that things will be set right after some arguments (Ref: Hikayat-e-Auliya (Arvah-e-Salasa) Hikayat 59, by Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi; page 98; Published at Kutub khana Naeemiya, Deoband). Harsh words and severity could be explained as to be a ‘style’; but how could the author of Taq’viyat-ul-Iman get the right to alter Minor Shirk (Non-Perfect Believing) to Major Shirk (Idolatry). The desire to make uproar and arguments is fulfilled; but still the deviation of Muslims could not be made corrected.Maulana Syed Ahmad Raza Bijnori Qasimi writes: “It is pity that due to this book (Taq’viyat-ul-Iman) the Indo-Pak Muslims who are more than Twenty Crores and Ninety percent of them belong to Hanfi School-of-thought have been divided into two groups (Maulana Syed Ahmad Raza Bijnori; ‘Anwar-ul-Bari’; Volume II; published by Nasir-ul-Uloom Bijnor; page 107).
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad writes: ‘Maulana Mohammad Ismail Shaheed took lessons together with Maulana Munawwar Uddin when after the death of Shah Abdul Azeez, he wrote Taq’viyat-ul-Iman and Jilal-ul-Ain’ain and his School-of-Thought gained popularity in the country, a strong debate was started among scholars. The strongest refutation against these came from Maulana Munawwar Uddin. He wrote various books and organized the famous 1240 A.H. debate (Manazirah) of Jama Masjid (Delhi). Also got Fatwa compiled from all the Indian scholars then procured Fatwa from Mecca and Medinah (Hara’mein).”
His writings reveal that initially he issued warning to Maulana Ismail and as well as his companion Shah sahib’s son-in-law Maulana Abdul Hai and tried to convince him every way; but when failed, indulged in active debate and rejections. He arranged the much famous debate (Manazirah) of Jama Masjid (Delhi) in which Maulana Ismail and Maulana Abdul Hai were on one side and on the other were Maulana Munawwar Uddin and all the other Delhi scholars. (Azad ki Kahani; compiled by Maulana Abdur Razzaq Malihabadi; page 48; Khalil Urdu Bazar, Lahore).
Maulana Makhsoos-Ullah, the son of Shah Rafiuddin Dehalvi, Maulana Mohammad Musa, the son of Shah Rafiuddin Dehalvi, Maulana Fazal-e-Haq Khairbadi, the pupil of Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddis Dehalvi, Mufti Sadaruddin Azurda, the pupil of Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddis Dehalvi, Maulana Fazal-e-Rasool Badayuni, Maulana Ahmad Saeed Naqshbandi Dehalvi, Maulana Rasheeduddin Dehalvi, Maulana Khairuddin Dehalvi Hakeem Sadiq Ali Khan Dehalvi (Real Grand Father of Maseeh-ul-Mulk Hakim Ajmal Khan), Maulana Syed Ashraf Ali Gulshan Abadi, Maulana Mukhlis-ur-Rahman Chatgami, Maulana Qalandar Ali Zubairi Panipati etc. innumerable scholars of Ahle-Sunna rejected and refuted these new thoughts and views through their speeches and writings in every way and actively participated in the Jehad of protection and preservance of Ahle-Sunna School-of-thought with the help of their knowledge and practice.
The learned Fazal-e-Rasool Badayuni asked seven questions to Hazrat Shah Makhsoos-Ullah, the son of Shah Rafiuddin, the son of Shah Waliullah Muhaddis Dehalvi, regarding Taq’viyat-ul-Iman and other related affairs which have published as questions and answers in ‘Risalah Teh’qiq-ul-Haqeeqah Bombay in 1267 A.H. Only three answers are being presented here; Hazrat Shah Makhsoos-Ullah Dehalvi pens down: “The answer of the first question is that Taq’viyat-ul-Iman which I have referred as ‘Taf’viyat-ul-Iman with ‘Fa’. The booklet which I have authored in the rejection of this has been named as ‘Mu’eid-ul-Iman’. The booklet of Ismail is not in accordance with the beliefs of our family but is even against the Monotheistic beliefs of all the Prophets and Messengers as well because the Messengers were sent down to educate Monotheism and to lead on their own path. In this booklet there is no trace of this Monotheism and practices of the Prophets. Some practices which he himself has segregated as to be ‘Polytheism’ or ‘Innovations’ have not been endorsed name by name either by a Prophet or his subordinate. If those are really there, wherever they are, please tell his followers to produce these before me also.
The answer of the fourth question is that the Wahabi’s (Mohammad Bin Abdul Wahab Najdi) booklet was the text and he (Ismail) has become like an annotator (of that book).
The answer of the fifth question is that the elder uncle (Shah Abdul Azeez) who had lost his sight and had become incompetent heard this and reacted: that had I not become incompetent due to indisposition, I would have answered this like ‘Tuhfa Asna Ashria’ and would present its rejection also.
Allah has helped me to endorse the rejection of the annotation. The purpose of the text has also been lost. Our honoured father (Shah Rafiuddin) had not seen it until disclosed by the order of elder Sir (Shah Abdul Azeez) than he believed him (Ismail) to be mislead and determined to present its rejection (Reference: Anwar Aftabe sadaqat compiled by Maulana Qazi Fazal Ahmad Ludhianvi, printed at Karimi Press Lahore, 1920 AD).
One more example of Shah Ismail Dehalvi’s styled innovation and self pride is being presented here for perusal.
Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi describes:
“Shah Ishaq Sahib reveals that when Maulvi Ismail started lifting of hands with post-preliminary ‘takbirs’ (Rafa-Yadein), then Maulvi Mohammad Ali and Maulvi Ahmad Ali who were disciples of Shah Abdul Azeez and his writer also, requested Shah Sahib that Sir! Maulvi Ismail has started rafa-yadein and it will lead to rioting, please make him stop it. Shah Sahib pacified them: I have become old. I will not be able to argue (Manazirah).”
When Shah Abdul Qadir came to him he suggested: Dear Abdul Qadir! Make Ismail to understand not to perform Rafa-Yadein. What is the advantage? Rioting will unnecessarily spread amongst people. Shah Abdul Qadir replied: Sir! I shall certainly convey this message but he would not agree to it and will refer to some Hadiths.
Shah Abdul Qadir sent a message to Maulvi Ismail through Maulvi Yaqub to quit Rafa-Yadein. This will create disturbance for no reason. When Maulvi Yaqub conveyed this message to Maulvi Ismail, he replied: How this Hadith will mean if public disturbance is kept in mind. “One who stays firm on just a single practice of Holy Prophet (Sunna) at the time of disturbance, shall be rewarded as equal to hundred martyrs,” because adopting the abandon practice (Sunna) shall surely create out cry in public. Maulvi Yaqub brought his answer to the knowledge of Shah Abdul Qadir. On hearing it said: Oh! Oh! I thought that Ismail had become a scholar; but he could not even understand the meaning of Hadith. This is correct for the time when there is a Non-Sunna against a Sunna, whereas in this case Sunna is not opposing a Non-Sunna; but there is another Sunna. Since adopting a Rafa-Yadein is Sunna; likewise abandoning this is also a Sunna.” (Reference: Hikayat 73, Arvahe Salasa, Imdadul Ghuraba, Saharanpur, 1370 AH).
The writings of Shah Ismail Dehalvi created differences pertaining to faith and juridical nature amongst scholars and public, amongst which issue of ‘Imkan-e-Kizb’ (A faith that Allah could utter a lie) and the issue of ‘Imkan-e-Nazeer’ (A faith that precedent of Holy Prophet was possible) are top listed. The scholars of Ahle-Sunna put forwarded their stand of ‘Imtina-e-Kizb’ (Providing prohibitions from Quran and Hadith against the faith of ‘Imkan-e-Kizb’) and ‘Imtina-e-Nazeer’ (Providing prohibitions against the faith of ‘Imkan-e-Nazeer’) with strong evidences and comprehensive annotations the controversial text is as follows:
“The Dignity of the Emperor is such that in a moment just with one order of ‘Be’ He could create crors of Prphets and pious persons and Jini and angels, Gabriel and Prophet Mohammad (Taq’viyat-ul-Iman by Shah Mohammad Ismail Dehalvi; page 37; Printed at Matbaa Siddiqui, Shah Jehanabad 1854 AD).
At this, the learned Fazal-e-Haq Khairabadi, the pupil of Shah Abdul Azeez Dehalvi, nabbing him strongly under the Law of Sharia pleaded that under the absolute injunctions of Quran and Hadith Prophet Mohammad Sal’lallaho Alihi’ Wasallam is the Seal of Prophets. There can be no other Prophet after him. Now his precedent is not only impossible but is absurd according to Islamic Divine law. The belief of creating some another Mohammad similar to Holy Prophet Mohammad, shall necessitate Allah telling untrue of what He himself has described in Quran (about the Seal of Prophet) and lying is an imperfection (belief of) which is inappropriate for Allah. For further details please refer to (Tah’qeeq-ul-Fatwah Fi Ibta’lit’taghwa compiled by the learned Fazal-e-Haq Khairabadi First Edition with Persian, Maktaba Qadria Lahore 1979/1399 AH, Translated in Urdu by Maulana Abdl Hakeem Sharaf Qadri) in which ample and strong evidences for ‘Imtina-e-Nazeer-e-Mohammadi’ and ‘Imtina-e-Kizb-e-Bari Taala’ have been presented. Shah Ismail Dehalvi penned down a booklet ‘Yak Roza’ in the same context. And one of his pupils Maulana Hyder Ali Tonki also tended to defend his teacher, by some answers. The learned Fazal-e-Haq Khairabadi authored a research and scholary book in Persian with the name of ‘Imtina-Un-Nazeer’ as an answer to answer, which was published by the learned Syed Sulaiman Ashraf, Head of Department of Theology, Muslim University Aligarh in 1908 from Jaunpur. Maulana Ahmad Husain Kanpuri, pupil of Mufti Lutfullah Aligarhi and successor of Haji Imdad Ullah Muhajir the Meccan in the context of ‘Imtina-e-Kizb Bari Taala’ had (authored) ‘Tan’zeeh-ur-Rahman An Shaiba’til Kizb Wa’nuq’san. Maulana Hakeem Syed Barkat Ahmad Tonki had ‘As’sam’sam-ul-Qa’dib Li’rasil Muf’tari Al’lala’hil Ka’zib’ and Mufti Mohammad Abdullah Tonki had ‘Uja’lat-ur-Rakib Fi Im’tina-e-Kizbil Wajib’ authored to reject eloquently against the faith of ‘Imkan-e-Kizb-e-Bari Ta’ala.’
Now we move forward leaving behind the differences and their consequences of this era. In order to understand the gist of the issue, the famous Naqshbandi Mujaddidi scholar Maulana Abul Hasan Zaid Farroqi Dehalvi’s (demise 1993 AD) following piece of writing adequately serves a warning:
“From the era of Hazrat Mujaddid (Alf Sani Shaikh Ahmad Farooqi Sarhindi) until 1240 AH/1825 AD the Muslims in India remained divided in two sects, one Ahle-Sunna sect and the second as Shia (sect).”
Then Maulana Ismail Dehalvi came to prominence. He was the grandson of Shah Waliullah and nephew of Shah Abdul Qadir. He became attracted to Mohammad Bin Abdul Wahab Najdi (Najd is the province of Saudi Arabia) and he came across Najdi’s booklet ‘Rad’dul Ish’rak’ which he studied and authored ‘Taq’viyat-ul-Iman’ in Urdu. This book started the era of religious freedom of thoughts. Some people became Non-conformist; whereas the others became Wahabis, another group called itself Ahle-Hadith; while some chose to be called Salfi.
The dignity and regard for leading Jurists that was in the hearts had vanished, the persons of ordinary knowledge and writing were started to be recognised as leaders and the most deplorable thing is that in the name of protection to oneness of Allah, there started the succession of insult and disrespectfulness in the respected and honoured Court of Holy Prophet. All these harmful affairs have started appearing after the month of Rabi-ul-Akhir 1240 AH/1825 AD. (Reference: ‘Maulana Ismail Dehalvi Aur Taqviyat-ul-Iman’ by Maulana Abul Hasan Farooqi Dehalvi; page 9, published Shah Abul Khair Academy, Chitli Qabar Delhi-6).
There occurred dialectic between Munhib’be-Rasool. Taj’ul Fa’hool Allama Abdul Qadir Barkati Badayuni (demise 1319 AH/1901 AD) and Maulana Ameer Ahmad Bin Maulvi Ameer Hasan Sehaswani (D 1306 AH/1889 AD) on the issues of Imkan-e-Kizb and Imkan-e-Nazeer in 1871, in Sheikhu Pur Badayun. Maulana Nazeer Ahmad sehaswani (D 1299 AH/1881 AD) has given a vivid description of debate and dialectic in ‘Manazirah-e-Ahmadia’ printed in Shola-e-Tur, Kanpur, in the year 1289 AH/1872 AD. Maulana Ameer Ahmad and Maulana Nazeer Ahmad had enjoyed the company of Maulana Mohammad Ahsan nanotvi. Basing their arguments on a Hadith from Ibn-e-Abbas, these persons believed that Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus Christ Alihimus-Salam being in different grades on Earth, share equal status with Holy Prophet Mohammad. And this was to show that the precedent of the Holy Prophet Mohammad was not only possible but could also be proved.
Professor Mohammad Ayyub Qadri (Karachi) endorses “Here it is necessary to indicate towards the affair that in the issue of Hadith Ibn-e-Abbas, the scholars of Bareilly and Badayun have intensely opposed Maulana Mohammad Ahsan. Maulana Naqi Ali Khan was leading this front at Bareilly and Maulana Abdul Qadir, the son of Maulana Fazal-e-Rasool Badayuni was the Chief of the body in Badayun. (Reference: Maulana Mohammad Ahsan Nanotvi, compiler: Prof Mohammad Ayyub Qadri page 94, Maktaba Usmania Karachi, 1966).
Maulana Abdul Haque Khairabadi, Maulana Syed Husain Shah Muhaddis Rampuri, Maulana Abdul Ali Rampuri, Mufti Noor-un-Nabi Rampuri and other scholars of Ahle-Sunna held the above mentioned belief as false one contending with the Definite verses of Quran. Hazrat Mufti Irshad Husain Rampuri wrote that having belief on it was against the sect of Ahle-Sunna. Kha’tim-un-Nabi’yeen possesses the meaning of the Seal of the Prophets. (Reference: Tan’bihul-Juhal compiled by Mufti Hafiz Bukhsh Anolvi, page 26).
The debate of the precedent of Prophet Mohammad, the Seal of the Prophethood and the Hadith of Ibn-e-Abbas continued gaining momentum. In reply to a question relating to the same subject Maulana Qasim Nanotvi authored a book named as Tah’zeer-un-Nas, in which he wrote that: “Thus belief held by the commoners for Holy Prophet as being the Final Prophet means that his era is after the era of the Prophets of past and he is the last of all the Prophets. But intelligent persons know that being early or last is indeed not an excellence.” (Reference: Tah’zeer-un-Nas, page 3, Ku’tub Khana Imdadia Deoband).
“Suppose if after the period of Holy Prophet a Prophet is born, none the less the finality of Prophet Mohammad shall not be changed, although his ‘contemporary’ be there on another earth or suppose, considered on this very same earth.” (Reference: Tah’zeer-un-Nas page 24).
In one of his epistles to Maulana Mohammad Fazil, Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanotvi writes:
“The meaning of Khatim-un-Nabi’yeen for the persons looking at superficial things is the same that the era of Prophet is after the eras of Prophets of past and no other messenger shall come now, but you know, that this is a belief showing no excellence (for Holy Prophet).” (Reference: Qasim-ul-Uloom, Maktoob-e-Awwal, Page 55).
Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi endorses:
“At the time Maulana Nanotvi wrote Tah’zeer-un-Naas nobody supported Maulana across India except Maulana Abdul Hai” (Ref: Al Ifazat-ul-Yaumia, Volume IV, Malfooz 927, page 870, printed at Deoband).
Maulana Mohammad Shah Punjabi, Maulana Fazal-e-Majeed Badayuni, Maulana Hidayat Ali Bareilvi, Maulana Fasibuddin Badayuni and Sheikh Mohammad Thanvi and other scholars severely condemned the contents of Tah’zeer-un-Naas by writing books.
In reply to the famous book Anwar-e-Satia written by Hazrat Maulana Abdus-Sami Bedil Rampuri, successor of Haji Imdad-Ullah Muhajir, the Meccan, Maulana Khaleel Ahmad Ambethvi Saharanpuri authored a book titled Bara’heen’-e-Qatia which bears an acknowledgement f Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi. The following heart-rending style has been adopted in order to compare the ‘Blessed Knowledge’ of Honoured Holy Prophet Sal’lalaho Alihiwasallam and that of ‘condemned’ Satan:
“Thus it should be considered that the ‘faith’ of proving the knowledge of the whole of earth for Holy Prophet is a false assumption without a proof and this is against the Absolute Statements of Quran and Hadith and this belief is not a right one but a Shirk (Polytheism), because this (belief) is only true for Satan and Angel of Death as proved by Quran and Hadith. Which absolute statement is there in Quran and Hadith to prove the knowledge of the whole of earth for Holy Prophet? Rejecting them all is like committing Shirk (Polytheism).”
(Reference: Bara’heen-e-Qatia; compiled by Maulana Khaleel Ahmad Ambethvi; page 55; Kutub Khana Imdadia Deoband).
Authored in 1303 AH, there occurred uproar against Bara’heen-e-Qatia also. Scholars of Ahle-Sunna opposed this. Dialectic was organized in Bhavalpur (Punjab) in 1306 AH, under the supervision and control of Nawab Mohammad Sadiq Abbasi, the Nawab of Bhavalpur, where Maulana Khaleel Ahmad Ambethvi was in service. Maulana Mahmood Hasan Deobandi and Maulana Khaleel Ahmad Ambethvi defended the Bara’heen-e-Qatia in this dialectic (Manazirah). Honourable Maulana Ghulam Dastgir Qusoori was the dialectician (Manazir) on behalf of Ahle-Sunna. The illustrious Shah Ghulam Fareed was the Judge of this dialectic. The complete proceeding has been compiled and printed with the name of ‘Taqdees-ul-Vakil An Tauheen-ir-Rasheed-val-Khalil’. The dialectic (Manazirah) between Maulana Ghulam Dastgir Qusoori and Maulana Khalil Ahmad Ambethvi was documentary writing.
Maulana Dastgir has objected like this:
“The objection of Faqir (me) is that the broadness of knowledge of Sar’ver-e-Ka’enat (the Chief amongst Allah’s Creation) Aa’lam-e-Makh’looq’at (the most knowledgeable amongst the creatures) Sal’lalaho Ali’hiwasallam has been contradicted and his knowledge has been recorded as to be lower than that of Satan. This is an extreme insult.” (Taqdees-ul-Vakil;Page 93).
Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Mecci and the pillar of Hara’mein (Mecca and Medinah) Maulana Rahmat Ullah Keranvi have supported the stand of Scholars of Ahle-Sunna and while supporting Maulana Ghulam Dastgir Qusoori have certified Taqdees-ul-Vakil in writing. Maulana Khalil Ahmad Keranvi, while rejecting the recorded verification of Maula Khaleel Ahmad Ambethvi’s stand endorsed on behalf of Maulana Rasheed Ahmad Gangohi, writes: “I considered Maulvi Rasheed Ahmad as truthful but he came out to be something else contrary to my understanding. (He) took great pain to prove that the knowledge of Holy Prophet is lesser than that of condemned Satan and held the opposite belief as Shirk (Polytheism)”. (Taqdees-ul-Vakil; Page 419).
Answering a question regarding Ilm-e-Ghaib (Fore Knowledge) Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi penned a booklet titled Hifzul-Iman in 1319 AH, in which defining the similarity or the measure and the quantity of the knowledge of Prophet Mohammad and has also further added that ‘such’ or ‘this much’ knowledge is also available with mad and infant, beast and cattles than what is the singularity of Holy Prophet. The real text is as follows: “If the decreeing of Fore-Knowledge on the Holy Prophet is correct according to Scholars, then point to be determined is that what does this Fore-Knowledge mean a part of the Fore-Knowledge or the whole of it? If this means the part of the Fore-Knowledge then what is the singularity for Holy Prophet? Such Fore-Knowledge is also available to every other man, infants or mad or even beasts and cattles.” (Hifz-ul-Iman by Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi; page 8; Kutubkhana Ejazia, Deoband).
Syed Nazeeruddin son of Syed Moinuddin and the grandson of Hazrat Syed Jeelani Qadri Hyderabadi, referring the harm and malice of the passage describes: “Some persons from Hyderabad brought the booklet ‘Hifz-ul-Iman’ of Maulvi Ashraf Ali to my Grandfather (Syed Mohammad Jeelani Qadri) and asked him about it. Having read the booklet, he said: “Maulvi Ashraf Ali has written very evil text about Ilm-e-Ghaib (Fore Knowledge)”.
A few days after it, Maulvi Ashraf Ali was sitting in Mecca Masjid (Hyderabad). My grandfather stood up and pointed out the evil of the text of Maulvi Ashraf Ali and said that the text smells Kufr.
Then after a few days a congregation of Scholars was convened at the residence of Maulana Hafiz Mohammad Ahmad (Son of Maulana Mohammad Qasim Nanotvi). Since Hafiz Sahib (Mohammad Ahmad) loved my grandfather, he invited him he visited him. There, the scholars exchanged opinions on the text of Hifz-ul-Iman. He described the objectionable text of this booklet and issued a judicial verdict (Fatwa) against it.
After a few days he saw Holy Prophet in dream expressing pleasure on rejecting the text of Hifz-ul-Iman proclaiming it as evil. The Holy Prophet told him that he was pleased with him andasked him if he wanted something. He (my grandfather) submitted: I have an earnest desire to pass on rest of my life in Medinah Munawwarah and be buried under the Holy soil of Medinah. His request was granted and thereafter he migrated to Medinah Munawwarah. He stayed there for ten years and passed away in 1364 AH. (Ref: Maqamat-e-Khair; page 616; Shah Abul Khair Academy Chitli Qabar; Delhi-6).
Once Hazrat Abul Khair Naqshbandi Mujaddidi Dehalvi was staying at Kothi Elahi Baksh in Meerut. On one occasion Hafiz Mohammad Ahmad, the son of Maulana Qasim Nanotvi and Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi were also present in his company. One elderly supporter of Hazrat Maulana Ghulam Dastgir Qusoori read the text of Hifzul-Iman there Hazrat Shah Abdul Khair Dehalvi strongly disapproved it and said to Maulvi Ashraf Ali: Is it the service to religion? Your ancestors were on our path, why did you do against this?
Maulvi (Ashraf Ali) Sahib answered: “I have clarified this text in my other booklet. He replied ‘After reading your booklet several people have gone astrayed. The clarification will not serve the purpose now.” (Bazm-e-Khair; By Zaid; Page 11; Shah Abul Khair Academy; Chitli Qabar, Delhi).
Both beginning and the end are before you. Mohammad Husain, the landlord of Nehtor, Distt. Bijnor writes that when Shah Ismail Dehalvi left Delhi for Lucknow alongwith his dependents and assistants and reached Lucknow and when he started preaching his beliefs “Maulana Abdur Rahman Vilayati alias Sufi was also present in Lucknow proper. His miracles (Kashf-o-Karamat) had gained extreme popularity. Maulvi Ismail visited him with the intention to debate. But it is said that Sufi Sahib’s mysticism remained dominating and abstained from participating in debate. At the time of departure, Maulvi Ismail said that the Scholars of Firangi Mahal (Lucknow) are badly misled. I have an intention to start Jehad against those misled Scholars after my return from Calcutta. Maulvi Abdur Rahman warned him: ‘Oh my son! Those who have such plans do never return.’ (Far’yad-ul-Muslimeen; Compiler Mohammad Husain; Printed Matbaa Riaz-e-Hind Amritsar; 1308 AH).
Pointing towards the consequences of deviation from ancestral School-of-thought and Waliullahi-beliefs in movement of Syed Ahmad Rae Bareilvi Sahib and in the writings of Shah Ismail Dehalvi Sahib, Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi expresses:
As the swerve which came its way after the historical deviation in Waliullahi Movement, it instead of taking shape of a national movement of Muslim masses changed into a separatist and sectarian movement. Although this movement attributed to Syed Ahmad Shaheed met its disastrous end but it had its impact on the other group belonging to the movement of Deoband. As a consequence even today the dominant majority in this sub-continent is that of Bareilvi Muslims who do not consider the two movements mentioned above, anything less than Infidelity (Kufr). (Ifadat-o-Malfuzat-e-Maulana Obaidullah Sindhi; Page 349; Compiler Professor Mohammad Suroor; Printed: Sindh Sagar Academy).
Our readers must have been acquainted with the knowledge of the brief history of the differences that have erupted within various Schools-of-thought and the causes of differences and the personalities and preceptors of differences after the year 1240 AH/1825 AD. Now a brief list of the leading personalities of Ahle Sunna School-of-thought is being presented before the readers: The thirteenth century after Hijrat:
Hazrat Allama Abdul Ali Firangi Mahli Lucknowi (Birth 1144 AH, demise 1235 AH). Hazrat Shah Mohammad Ajmal Allahabadi (Birth 1160 AH, demise 1236 AH); Hazrat Shah Anwar-ul-Haq Firangi Mahli (Birth 1167 AH, death 1236 AH); Hazrat Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddis Dehalvi (1159 AH-1239 AH); Hazrat Shah Ghulam Ali Naqshbandi Dehalvi (1158 AH-1240 AH); Hazrat Shah Abu Saeed Mujaddidi Rampuri (1196 AH-1236 AH);Hazrat Shah Aale Ahmad Ach-che Mian Barkati Mareharvi (1160 AH-1262 AH); Hazrat Shah Abul Hasan Fard Phulvarvi (1191 AH-1265 AH); Hazrat Shah Ahmad Saeed Mujaddidi Rampuri (1217 AH-1277 AH); Hazrat Allama Fazal-e-Haq Khairabadi (1212 AH-1278 AH); Hazrat Allama Abdul Haleem Firangi Mahali Lucknowi(1209 AH-1285 AH); Hazrat Allama Fazal-e-Rasool Badayuni (1213 AH-1289 AH); Hazrat Syed Shah Aale Rasool Ahmadi Barkati Mareharvi (1209 AH-1296 AH); Hazrat Maulana Naqi Ali Bareilvi (1246 Ah-1297 AH) etc.
The Fourteenth Century after Hijrat:
Hazrat Abdul Hai Firangi Mahli Lucknowi (1264 AH-1304 AH); Hazrat Mufti Irshad Husain Rampuri (1248 AH-1311 AH); Hazrat Maulana Fazal-e-Rahman Ganj Moradabadi (1208 AH-1313 AH); Hazrat Maulana Ghulam Dastgir Qusoori Lahori (demise 1315 AH); Hazrat Maulana Abdul Qadir Badayuni (1253 AH-1319 AH); Hazrat Maulana Hidayat Ullah Rampuri (Jaunpuri) (Demise 1326 AH); Hazrat Maulana Khairuddin Dehalvi (demise 1326 AH); Hazrat Maulana Ahmad Raza Bareilvi (1272 AH-1340 AH); Hazrat Shah Abul Khair Naqshbandi Dehalvi (1272 AH-1341 AH); Hazrat Shah Ali Husain Ashrafi Kichochvi (1266 AH-1355 AH); Hazrat Shah Mehar Ali Gularvi Punjabi (1274 AH- 1356 AH) etc.
The preceding references on the earlier pages and some other texts which include misguidances and Blasphemies (In ‘Daawat-e-Fikr’ compiled by Maulana Mohammad Mansha Tabish Qusoori, printed in Pak and India, photos of nearly all the text like this could be seen) which directly strike at the Dignity of Allah and the honour of Prophet. In fact only these caused differences, divisions and confusions amongst the Indian Islamic community. And thus the Indian soil was changed into the battle field of different sects and School-of-thoughts whose sparks are flying even today from city to city and village to village and scorching the bodies and souls of Indian Islamic community.
In the chapter of the Movement of sanctity of the Prophethood (Tah’reek-e-Taq’dees-e-Risalat) and the defense of Ahle Sunna School-of-thought, Muhibb-e-Rasool Taj-ul-Fahool Maulana Abdul Qadir Barkati Badayuni (son of Allama Fazal-e-Rasool Badayuni) disciple of Allama Fazal-e-Haq Khairabadi, pupil of Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddis Dehalvi and Imam-e-Ahle Sunna Maulana Ahmad Raza Fazil-e-Bareilvi (son of Allama Naqi Ali Bareilvi), the successor of Maulana Syed Shah Aale Rasool Mareharvi, the disciple of Shah Abdul Azeez Muhaddis Dehalvi played prominent roles during respective period. Both of these gentlemen had the permission and succession (Ijazat-o-Khilafat) after taking the oath of allegiance and devotion (Bait-o-Iradat) connected with the Historical chain of Lumanaries of ‘Qadri-Barkati Sufi Order’ from Marehrah district Etah (UP) and the centre of devotion for both of them was the same, Marehrah, the purifier.
For the distinctive quality of passion and love of Imam Ahmad Raza Fazil-e-Bareilvi with Holy Prophet, his real grandson Hazrat Mufti Mohammad Akhtar Raza Qadri Azhari Bareilvi, writes about the distinctive quality of his grandfather regarding his passion and love for the Holy Prophet: ‘ He (Honourable Fazil-e-Bareilvi) made the passion and love of the Holy Prophet as the axis of his life and these sentiments of love and passion has enveloped in such a way that if it is said that he was completely submerged in the love of Holy Prophet, it will reflect the true and vivid picture of his life. The love of the Holy Prophet was his life and was also his message.
It is worth considering here that his love was not insanity where there is a freedom from the fold of consciousness and wisdom but his love meant to perish in the pleasure of the beloved and it is that pinnacle of love where man’s own will does not exist and intentions disappear. Even like his movements come under the obedience of the wills of the beloved. And this is the position according to a Hadith when man’s will comes under the obedience of religion which was expressed by Holy Prophet Sal’alaho’ Alihi’Vasallam.
This was the essence of his entire religious and academic efforts and in order to learn this, it is advisable to study his book ‘Maqale Urafa Ba’Ezaze Sharaa-o-Ulema’ in which he has revealed the place and the honour of the Islamic Devine Path (Sharia) and has eloquently rejected the Sufis who have made themselves free from this Islamic Devine Path. And in many of his other books has strictly nabbed and criticized the customs against the Islamic Jurisprudence and has educated the Muslims to shun from them. For example to visit unreal graves and visit of tombs by women, the fair and shows at the occasion of ‘Urs’, respectful prostration, Muharram mourning etc. He has severely admonished to keep away and abstain from them (Reference: ‘Weekly Hujoom’ New Delhi, December 1988).
Professor Mohammad Masud Ahmad (Karachi) the worthy son of Jurist Hazrat Mohammad Mazharullah Naqshbandi Mujaddidi, the Orator and Imam of Masjid Fatehpuri writes:
  1. (Imam Ahmad Raza) Muhaddis Bareilvi considered the use of such words disrespectful for the dignity of Almighty Allah and that Holy Prophet insolent, which apparently are seemly but are also insolent. Such words are present in ‘Tahzeer-un-Naas’ of Maulvi Mohammad Qasim Nanotvi, in ‘Hifz-ul-Iman’ of Ashraf Ali Thanvi, in ‘Bara’heen-e-Qatia’ of Khaleel Ahmad Ambethvi, in ‘Sirat-e-Mustaqeem’ and ‘Taq’viyat-ul-Iman’ of Maulvi Ismail and in ‘Al-Jihdul Muqil’ of Mahmudul-Hasan are found to be present according to Muhaddis Bareilvi. On the other hand these respected persons plead that their words do not mean that, which shows misbelieve because disrespect is also prohibited (Haraam) to them as well. But Muhaddis Bareilvi has the stand that since these texts are commonly understandable in Urdu, so whatever meaning the Urdu knowing persons take of this, shall be maintained as the ‘real meaning’ and therefore shall be subjected to judicial decree.
  2. The second issue was that Muhaddis Bareilvi was convinced that all those especialities and distinctions of Holy Prophet which have been described in Quran and Hadith, should be exactly expressed so that his personality may emerged to the fore in full and his dignity and magnificence could establish in the hearts of Muslims. On the other hand, scholars of Deoband were convinced of restraint. They thought that this way Muslims could go out of hands.
  3. Muhaddis Bareilvi believed the holding of Eid Meelad-un-Nabi as permitted and commendable; on the other hand scholars of Deoband opposed this and considered it as innovation in Islam.
  4. Muhaddis Bareilvi believed ‘standing-erect’ during Meelad celebration as desirable; on the other hand scholars of Deoband thought it to be innovation in Islam.
  5. Muhaddis Bareilvi believed ‘Urs’ (death anniversary of Saint) (provided it does not include acts against Islamic Jurisprudence) as lawful; whereas scholars of Deoband considered them to be unlawful.
  6. Fatiha-Khu’ani (provided it does not have unlawful acts) was lawful to Muhaddis whereas it was held innovation in Islam by Deoband scholars.
Professor Mohammad Masud Ahmad writes after a few lines: Haji Imdad-Ullah Muhajir Mecci, the guide in mystics to the scholars of Deoband, almost agreed to all the concepts of Muhaddis Bareilvi and in order to bring unity between both the Schools-of-thoughts, he had compiled a booklet titled ‘Faisla Haft Mas’ala’. But the scholars of Deoband did not give consent to his views (Reference: Imam Ahmad Raza Muhaddis Bareilvi; compiler: Professor Mohammad Masud Ahmad; page 37, 38; printed at Qadri Kitab Ghar, Bareilly).
The belief of ancestors to successors based on consensus is that disrespect and insolence to the dignity of Holy Prophet is a heinous crime and open Blasphemy. The absolute orders regarding this (belief) are present in Quran and Hadith and in the percepts of the Companious and their Successors. The Sheikh-ul-Hadith of Darul Uloom Deoband Maulana Husain Ahmad Madni writes in this regard: “Defamation to Holy Prophet amounts to blasphemy. What to say of an insult if a person utters such words which are cause of disgrace, then they too will be the cause of blasphemy.”
(Reference: Maktubat-e-Sheikhul Islam, Volume 2, page 165).
Similarly disbelief and hypocrisy too are infidelity (Kufr) and after jurisprudential proof, it is obligatory to charge infidelity upon the person disapproving the necessities of religion.
Maulana Ameen Islahi, the Manager of Madarsa’tul-Islah, Sarae Meer, Distt Azamgarh (UP) writes in one of his epistles: “The Fatwa of Maulana Thanvi that Maulana shibli Nomani and Maulana Hameed-Ullah Farahi are infidels has been published. And since the Madarsa is a common Mission of both of these. The Madarsa’tul Islah is the Institution of blasphemy and hypocrisy. Even the Scholars who if participate in the (promotional) meetings of this Institution are also atheist and irreligious (Reference: ‘Hakeem-ul-Ummat’; Compiler: Abdul Majid Dariyabadi; page 475).
When Maulana Abdul Majid Dariyabadi the mystic disciple and spiritual successor of Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi, through a detailed epistle about the knowledge and excellence, devotion and obedience and their services to religion and learning of Maulana Shibli Nomani and Maulana Farahi, tried to present explanation to Maulana Thanvi. In response to it Maulana Thanvi wrote:
“All of these are practices and their reports, beliefs are something different. With the truthfulness of the beliefs, mischief of practices and conditions and with mischiefs of beliefs, truthfulness of practices and conditions can go collectively.” (Reference: Hakeem-ul-Ummat; page 476).
In order to get important information and further research on this subject apart from ‘Kitab-ush-Shifa’ written by Qazi Ayaz Maliki Undlasi (Born 476 AH-Demise 544 AH), please refer to the following other books ‘Ass’arim-ul-Mas’lool’ by Ibne Tae’mia; ‘Ifkar-ul-Mul’hideen’ by Anwer Shah Kashmiri Sheikhul Hadith Darul Uloom Deoband; ‘Ash’addul Azab’ by Murtiza Hasan of Dharbhanga, Administrator of Education Deoband.
The study of two recently published books ‘Na’mus-e-Rasool’ and ‘Qanoon-e-Risalat’ authored by Justice Mohammad Ismail Quraishi, printed at Al-Faseel Urdu Bazar Lahore, also ‘Gustakh-e-Rasool ki Shar’ai Haisiat’ compiled by Mufti Mohammad Gul-e-Rahman Qadri, printed at Razwi Kitab Ghar Delhi shall also prove to be useful.
The scholars of Ahle Sunna have on their own safeguarded and defended bravely against the attacks on the magnificence of Allah and the honour of Holy Prophet. Following their foot steps, Imam-e-Ahle Sunna Maulana Ahmad Raza Fazil-e-Bareilvi too has supported and defended the Ahle Sunna School-of-thought through his pen. Kan’zul Iman Fi Tarjamatil Quran; Al’atayan Nab’viyah Fil Fatawar Razwiya; Jid’dul Mum’tar Ala Rad’dil Muh’tar; Hada’iq-e-Baq’shish Al’dau’lat-ul-Meccia and other hundreds of books are true witness of justice on it. A strong addition to the same religious service is ‘Fatwa Har’mein Bar Jaf-e-Nad’vatul Mein’ (1317 AH) Al’mu’tamad-ul-Mus’tanad (1320 AH) and ‘Hu’sam-ul Har’mein’ (1324 AH) in which after delivering his own judicial verdict against the blasphemics already mentioned he has obtained confirmations from scholars of Mecca and Medinah. For details and research please refer to the book ‘Fazil-e-Bareilvi-Ulamae Hajaz ki Nazar Mein’ authored by Professor Mohammad Masud Ahmad printed in India and Pak.
He has given thousands of judicial verdicts as a jurist and Mufti and explained all sorts of intellectual and research concerned queries. Although such service has also been rendered by many of his contemporary scholars of Ahle Sunna, but he achieved a distinctive position as a representative and iterpretor of Scholars of Ahle Sunna. As in the field of repudiation of sinful thoughts and false beliefs, he was a severe fighter against enemy force in the rank and file. He participated actively in extirpation of Wahabism and its different branches. For this reason he also came under the attacks for various allegations and charges. He himself writes that:
“In order to misguide and instigate the helpless Muslim masses they play a ruse in broad day light how could the Fatwa of infidelity from Sunni scholars be trusted. They blurt out others as blasphemous even on negligible issues. The judicial verdicts of Kufr are always being printed in their machines.”
They called Ismail dehalvi an infidel and also to Maulvi Is-haq and Maulvi Abdul Hai. Then those who had little more immodesty added that they called Shah Abdul Azeez Sahib as Kafir, Allah forbid and call, and Hazrat Shah Waliullah and Haji Imdadullah were also called so, and Shah Fazle Rahman too was called so. Then those who have gone above the immodesty went ahead to call Hazrat Sheikh Mujaddid Alf Sani as Kafir.
In short, some one was called infidel in presence of his select devotee. It went to the extent that some of their elders tried to poison the ears of late Maulana Maulvi Shah Husain Sahib of Allahabad that Hazrat Saiyadna Sheikh Akbar Muhiuddin Bin Arabi has been called infidel, May Allah bestow heaven to Maulana. He practiced this verse of Holy Quran:
“If a sinner comes to you with any news, ascertain the truth, lest ye harm people unwittingly and afterwards become full of repentance for what ye have done” (Sura Al-Hujurat, Ayat VI).
He asked for the facts through a letter. Following which a booklet ‘An’ja’al Bari An Vis’vasal-Muftari’ was written and dispatched. And Maulana sent a gift of ‘Lahol Sharief’ upon the liar. (Reference: ‘Tam’heed-e-Iman’ by Imam Ahmad Raza Bareilvi; Page 45, 46; printed at Idarah Muarif Nomaniah Lahore).
A reliable and great scholar of Ahle-Sunna Maulana Syed Ahmad Saeed Kazmi Amrohi (Anwar-ul-Uloom Multan) writes:
“In a judicial matter of charging with ‘Kufr’, the stand of our School has remained unchanged that the person having uttered the blasphemous words or having practiced an act of infidelity, shall necessitate the act of Kufr upon himself, we will not hesitate to charge him with Kufr. May such person belong to Deoband or Bareilly, may he belong to League or to Congress be a Natury or Nadvi. It is not a manner of justice to differentiate between all and sundry in this context.
This does not ever mean that if an individual belonging to league utters profane words (of blasphemy) entire league has become infidel. If a Nadvi has committed blasphemy, May Allah forbid, does it mean that the entire Nadva has become infidel. We do not pronounce every native of Deoband as infidel due to infidel texts of a few scholars of Deoband.
We as well as our ancestors time and again have declared that we do not call any native of Deoband, or Lucknow as infidel. To us only those who have committed insults in the Court of The Most Dignified Allah and His Prophet and His Beloved persons and despite severe admonitions they did not renounce of their insolence who inspite of being aware of insolence and even after knowing the meaning of insolence accept insolents as true believers, righteous, their leader and their guide.
That is all! Apart from them, we have never charged with infidelity to a person claiming himself to be a Muslim. Such persons whom we have charged infidelity if are being investigated, they are very small in number. Besides them neither a resident of Deoband is infidel nor that of Bareilly, neither a man of League nor one from Nadva, we believe that all of them are Muslims. (Reference: Al-Haq’qul Mubeen; Allama Ahmad Saeed Kazmi; page 24, 25; printed at Multan).
The annotator of Bukhari Hazrat Mufti Mohammad Sharief-ul-Haq Amjadi, Head of the Department of Jurisprudence Jamia Ashrafia Mubarakpur Azamgarh writes:
“The meanings which are famous and familiar with the masses do not form a subject for a judicial decree, which is based on real meaning. Therefore such person who calls himself a Deobandi and is also called so by public. He recognizes these four scholars of Deoband as his guide and leader, he goes to the extent of calling Ahle Sunna as innovator, but he is not aware of the texts of infidelity of these four, already mentioned; then he is not of Deoband (School) indeed. The order shall not stand valid to call this person as infidelor performing funeral prayer is infidelity. (Reference: Muarif-e-Shariha; page 914, Raza Academy, Bombay).
According to the line of inheritance, those faiths and practices of the era of Holy Prophet, the era of Companions and their Subordinates as reported in ancient books of the commentaries of Quran and Hadith, Jurisprudence and mysticism biographies and history; the same faiths and practices are being followed by Ahle Sunna Sect. The Scholars of Firangi Mahal of Lucknow and Khairabad, Badayun and Bareilly have always invited for the same through their writings and speeches. They really are the caller and representative of Honourable Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis of Delhi (demise 1052 AH). Honourable Shah Abdul Aziz Muhaddis of Delhi’s (demise 1239 AH) education and views, who are the heir and custodians of Islam, who are not prepared to accept or rather tolerate an influence of any ideology, modern view and un-Islamic thought hardly for a moment they continue to embrace their ancient heritage and believe the same to form the assets of intense happiness and the source of Salvation for themselves and for other Muslims on the globe as well.
Honourable Maulana Naeemuddin of Moradabad, the heir descendent of Imam Ahmad Raza Fazil-e-Bareilvi pens:
“Sunni is one who follows the footprints of Holy Prophet and his Companions. This shall form the persons who follow the School of four Chief Caliphs, the Imams, mystic saints and modern religious scholars such as Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehalvi, Hazrat Maulana Abdul Ali Firangi Mahali, Hazrat Maulana Fazal-e-Haq Khairabadi, Hazrat Maulana Shah Fazal-e-Rasool Badayuni, Hazrat Mufti Irshad Husain Rampuri and Hazrat Maulana Mufti Shah Ahmad Raza Bareilvi. (Reference: Al-fiqih; Amritsar; page 9).
Imam Ahmad Raza Bareilvi like other scholars belonging to Sunni sect has emphasized everywhere for the reforms in beliefs and mode of life of Muslims, in his verdicts (Fatwa) which were printed in the form of small journals. If you go through them, you will come to know that the knowledge of real Islamic Jurisprudence and the Obedience to Islamic Jurisprudence is obligatory on Muslims. Shunning from innovations and disapprovals are necessary for Muslims. A mystic without knowledge and a spiritual guide not acting according to Islamic Jurisprudence are buffoons of devil, Resemblance to infidels, association with irreligios persons and participation in the fairs of Hindus is unlawful, prostration for someone except Allah is Shirk (Idolatry) and prostration of respect is forbidden (Haraam). The disdain of a Muslim while boasting one’s caste is unlawful. Muharram mourning (Tazia-Dari) is innovation and unlawful, Qawwali with music and musical instruments is unlawful. The journey of women to the pilgrimage of graves is unlawful. Writing ‘Sal’am etc. (An abbreviation for Sal’al’ahu Alihi’ Vasallam) is unlawful. Visiting false-graves is unlawful. Conveying rewards of virtuous deeds to a dead (Isale-Savab) and serving special meals to poor and meek’s for this purpose is lawful but to include everyone in the meals as feast is unlawful etc. etc. For further details please refer to the book written by me ‘Imam Ahmad Raza and Rejections of Innovations and Disapprovals’ printed in India and Pak as well.
Similar to the majority of Ahle Sunna the scholars of Badayun, Khairabad and Bareilly and Sufis of Marehrah and Kachocha etc. have faiths in the legality and interpretation of: The mediation of Prophets and pious personalities, devotional viewing of relics and remains, pilgrimage of holy tombs, prohibition-free Urs, Meelad, Qiyam, Fatiha and Isal-e-Savab etc. are convinced and practicing themselves which has always been customary with great ancestors and even today it is customary with the ninety percent population of the Islamic World. The details and verifications of these practices and customs of Ahle Sunna has been recorded in the latest Arabic book titled ‘Mafa’heem-e-Yajib An Tas’ahah’ compiled by Syed Mohammad Bin Alvi Maliki Mecci (First edition printed in 1985 AD), with the documented verifications of the scores of the contemporary Arab and African scholars which include a few special members of scholars of ‘Rabta-e-Alam-e-Islami’ Mecca Mukarrama. I have translated it with the title ‘Islah-e-Fikr-o-Aitiqad’ which has been published from both India and Pakistan and is readily available. Syed Mohammad Farooq-ul-Qadri, the Urdu translator of the marvelous book of Waliullahi order of mysticism ‘An’fas-ul-Arifeen’ while describing few aforesaid practices of Ahle Sunna writes in his preface: “Please think for a while! That Shah Waliullah Muhaddis Dehalvi, Shah Abdur Raheem, Sheikh Abur Raza, Sirajul Hind Maulana Shah Abdul Azeez, did all of them belonged to Bareilvi School-of-thought? There was no existence of Maulana Shah Ahmad Raza of Bareilly on the Indian soil when all such disputes got slanted.
The first thing which stirred the calm and peaceful atmosphere of the sub-continent was ‘Taq’vi-yatul Iman’ of Shah Mohammad Ismail who incidentally belonged to the same family. Whose ideas were unfamiliar, the calls were strange and the style of expression was aggressive. I have gone through a list of two hundred and fifty books came out in various languages from various regions to contradict ‘Taq’vi-yatul Iman’, one could very well gather from it, about spirit in which general Muslims, scholars and those belonging to Khanqah, look these books at that time.
We do not have any proof and propriety in order to say with one stroke of pen that all the scholars, mystics saints and masses of the sub-continent May Allah forbid, all are involved in Polytheism and innovations (Shirk and Bidat) and for the first time Shah Mohammad Ismail was acquainting them to the real Monotheism (oneness of Allah). What the time gap is between Shah Waliullah, Shah Abdul Azeez and Shah Mohammad Ismail? Did the entire sub-continent get involved in infidelity and idolatry during this period? And if it was already so, then why Hakeem-ul-Ummat Shah Waliullah and Shah Abdul Azeez themselves did not use such a severity and such a tone? The truth is that it was the first voice with deviation from the School-of-thought of the majority sect which resounded in the sub-continent which can indeed be termed as the echo of the movement of Sheikh Mohammad Bin Abdul Wahab Najdi but it can never be termed as an interpretation of the thoughts and practices of Waliullah.” ( Reference: An’fasul-Arifeen; page 18, 19; Mak’taba’tul Fa’lah; Deoband).
The movement of the Sunni scholars of Khairabad, Badayun and Bareilly the preservation of the honour of Holy Prophet came into existence as a reaction to the wahabism. The leader of the Sunni sect at that time, Maulana Ahmad Raza Fazil-e-Bareilvi (D 1340 AH/1921 AD) while enthusiastically leading (this movement) supported and defended the (Sunni) School-of-thought, of ancestors and masses and the following great scholars, in particular co-operated with him: Hazrat Maulana Wasi Ahmad Muhaddis Surti, Hazrat Maulana Mohammad Amjad Ali Azmi, Hazrat Maulana Naeemuddin Moradabadi, Hazrat Syed Jamaat Ali Shah Muhaddis Alipuri, Hazrat Shah Deedar Ali Alwari, Hazrat Maulana Hamid Raza Qadri, Hazrat Maulana Mustafa Raza Noori, Hazrat Maulana Abdul Muqtadir Badayuni, Hazrat Maulana Abdul Qadeer Badayuni, Hazrat Maulana Abdul Aleem Siddiqui Meeriti, Hazrat Syed Mohammad Ashrafi Kachochvi, Hazrat Zafaruddin Qadri Bihari, Hazrat Mufti Mohammad Abdul Baqi, Burhan-ul-Haq Jabalpuri, Hazrat Maulana Hashmat Ali Lucknowi, Hazrat Maulana Karamat Ullah Dehalvi, Hazrat Hasnain Raza Bareilvi etc.
A few present outstanding names of this class are the following:
Hazrat Mufti Mohammad Akhtar Raza Qadri Azhari, Hazrat Shah Ahmad Noorani, Maulana Tehseen Raza Bareilvi, Hazrat Mufti Mohammad Sharief-ul-Haq Amjadi, Hazrat Arshad-ul-Qadri, Hazrat Mufti Abdul Mannan Mubarakpuri, Hazrat Mufti Ghulam Mohammad Razvi, Hazrat Mufti Mohammad Abdul Qayyum Hazarvi, Hazrat Professor Mohammad Masud Ahmad Mazhari, Hazrat Mufti Zafar Ali Nomani, Hazrat Mufti Jalaluddin Ahmad Amjadi, V Syed Mohammad Madani Ashrafi Kachochvi, Hazrat Mufti Mohammad Ashfaq Husain Naeemi, Hazrat Ziaul Mustafa Qadri, Hazrat Khuwaja Muzaffar Husain Razvi, Hazrat Maulana Mujeeb Ashraf Razvi, Hazrat Maulana Abdul Hakeem Sharf Qadri, Hazrat Shah Turabul Haq Qadri, Hazrat Syed Hamid Ashraf Kachochvi, Hazrat Maulana Qamar-uz-Zaman Azamgarhi etc.
These are the names of some of the distinguished Institutions (Madarsas) of Ahle Sunna:
Manzar-e-Islam Bareilly, Mazhar-e-Islam Bareilly, Jamia Ashrafia Mubarakpur, Jamia Naeemia Moradabad, Darul Uloom Amjadia Karachi, Jamia Nizamia Rizviyya Lahore, Darul Uloom Is-haqia Jodhpur, Markaz-us-Saqafat-issunnia Calicut Kerala, Jamia Sadia KasarKode kerala, Jamia Hazrat Nizamuddin Aulia New Delhi, Darul-Uloom Amjadia Nagpur, Darul-Uloom Faizur Rasool Baraun Sharief, Jamia Hameedia Rizviyya Benaras, Jamia Naeemia Lahore, Jamia Naeemia Karachi, Jamia Islamia Runahi Faizabad, Darul-Uloom Aleemia Jamda Shahi Basti, Darul-Uloom Mohammadia Bombay, Faiz-ul-Uloom Jamshedpur, Zia-ul-Islam Howrah Bengal, Anwar-ul-Quran Balrampur, Darul-Uloom Ghareeb Nawaz Allahabad, Ehsan-ul-Madaris Kanpur, Daul-Uloom Warsiyya Lucknow etc. A few Organisations working for broadcasting and publication are as follows:
Sunni Dar-ul-Ishaat Mubarakpur, Al Majma-ul-Islami Mubarakpur, Markazi Majlis-e-Raza Lahore, Raza Academy Lahore, Raza Academy Bombay, Idarah-e-Tehqeeqat-e-Imam Ahmad Raza Karachi, Idarah Muarif-e-Nomania Lahore, Darul-Qalam Delhi, Idarah-e-Afkar-e-Haq Baisy Purnia, Maktaba-jam-e-Noor Delhi, Farooqia Book Depot Delhi, Rizvi Kitab Ghar Delhi and Bhevandi, Maktaba Naeemia Delhi, Qadri Kitab Ghar Bareilly, Qadri Book Depot Bareilly, Maktaba Rahmania Rizviyya Bareilly etc.
Monthly ‘Kanzul Iman’ Delhi, Monthly Ashrafia Mubarakpur, Monthly ‘Jehane-Raza’ Lahore, Monthly Sunni Duniya Bareilly, Monthly ‘Aala-Hazrat’ Bareilly, Monthly ‘Taeba’ Ahmadabad, Monthly ‘Yaseen’ Kota Rajasthan, Monthly ‘Sirat-e-Mustaqeem’ Udaipur Rajasthan, Monthly ‘Mehe Taeba’ Jodhpur Rajasthan, Trimonthly ‘Al-Kausar’ Sehsram, Yearly ‘Muarif-e-Raza’ Karachi, Monthly ‘Zia-e-Haram’ Lahore etc. are also links of the same chain.
The Centre and axis of propagation of faith and call of all of them is:
“Show us the straight path:
The path of those whom thou hast favoured:
Not the path of those who earn thine anger:
Not of those who go astray.”
(Surat: Al-Fatiha)
Blessed and reverend personalities and noble ancestors of the sub-continent mentioned below are those following whose footprints may win rewards from Allah for the present day Muslims:
Hazrat Daata Ganj Bukhsh Hijveri of Lahore, Hazrat Khwaja Moeenuddin Chishti Ajmeri, Hazrat Sheikh Bahauddin Zakaria of Multan, Hazrat Khwaja Fareed Uddin Ganj Shakar, Hazrat Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiyar Kahki, Hazrat Makhdoom Alauddin Sabir Kalyari, Hazrat Mehboob-e-Ilahi Nizamuddin Aulia, Hazrat Sharfuddin Yahya Muneeri, Hazrat Makhdoom Jahanian Jehan Gasht, Ameer Kabir Syed Ali Hamdani, Hazrat Makhdoom Ashraf Jehangir Simnani, Hazrat Sheikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehalvi, Hazrat Mujaddis Alf Sani Sarhindi etc.
These holy persons are those who after enriching the sub-continent with the wealth of Islam and Iman, have turned the sky into brilliance.
Their shadow was refulgence and footprints were lamps.
The brilliance spread from where they passed.
(Hindustani Mussalman Part II; Biweekly Dawat, New Delhi; October 1999 Edition and the Monthly ‘Kanzul Iman’ Delhi December 1999 Edition).

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